18 – 柳宗元 – Liu Zhongyuan -りゅう そうげん (773-819) : la prose, la barque, l’exil

 18 – 柳宗元 – Liu Zhongyuan -りゅう そうげん18 – 柳宗元 – Liu Zhongyuan -りゅう そうげん - 実

Noms

EFEO Lieou Tsong-yuan
Wade–Giles: Liu Tsung-yüan;
Zi : Zihou (子厚)

Vie

Avec Han Yu, fondateur du mouvement de la prose classique (guwen 古文). Haut mandarin puis exilé à Liuzhou où sa production littéraire se développe.

Un des huit grand maître de la prose Tang et Song : 唐宋八大家

Poème du Shisendô

漁翁
漁翁夜傍西巖宿
曉汲清湘燃楚竹(燭)
煙消曰出不見人
欵乃一声山水緑
迴看天際下中流 (deux derniers vers absents)
巖上無心雲相逐

Le vieux pécheur
Le vieux pécheur passe la nuit sous la falaise de l’Ouest
Il puise l’eau pure de la rivière Xiāng (湘) et allume un feu de bambou
La brume se disperse au lever, personne en vue
Juste le bruit de la rame , le vert de l’eau et des monts
Il se retourne pour voir les vagues à l’horizon
Au dessus des crêtes, calmes, passent l’un après l’autre les nuages

日本語

漁夫のおやじが西側の岩のあたりで一夜を過ごし
明け方に湘江の清らかな水を汲み、楚竹を燃やす
朝もやが消え日が出る頃、もう漁夫の姿は見えない(人影はない)
舟を漕ぐ掛け声が一声高く響けば、山も水も緑色に染まる

* この詩はあと一聯「天際を迴看して中流を下れば、 巖上無心雲相逐う」がある。蘇軾がこの二句はない方がよいのではないかと評したといわれ(悪漢『冷斎夜話』)、古来より議論がある。前四句は漁翁を客観的に描き、後二句は柳宗元の気持ちを重ねているので趣が異なる。この詩は柳宗元が永州に流されている時の作で、「巖上無心の雲」は陶淵明の「帰去来の辞」をふまえる。丈山は蘇軾の評を知ってあと二句を省いたのかもしれない。
* 「人」は普通の人(つまりあたりに人影はない)とする説と、漁翁をさす説とがある。
* 欵乃(あいだい):舟をこぐかけ声。一説に櫓のきしむ音、又は舟歌。
(山本四郎『石川丈山と詩仙堂』p.180参照)

English translation of the poem

Old Fisherman
Old fisherman spends the night by the cliff of the west
At dawn he draws pure water from Xiang River and light a bamboo fire
When the fog disappears at sunrise, the fisherman is already gone (no one is in sight)
Just the shout of the fisherman as he rows his boat, and the green of the water and the mountains

* The original poem has two more lines at the end that read, “He turns to see the end of the sky, and goes down the river. He looks up and sees clouds passing one after the other above a cliff freely and innocently.” Su Shi (Su Tungpo) is said to have made a comment that the poem would be better without the last two lines, and there have been debates concerning this matter. The first four lines and the last two lines are different in tones in that the former describes the fisherman objectively and the latter describes the feelings of Liu Zhongyuan. This poem was written when Liu Zhongyuan was exiled to Yongzhou. The last line “the clouds passing above a cliff” is based on Tao Yuanming’s “Returning to the Fields” (帰去来の辞).
* There are two views concerning the “person(人)” in the poem. One view says it refers to a person in general (therefore meaning “no one is in sight”) and the other view says it refers to the fisherman himself.
* 欵乃(aidai):The shouts of fishermen as they start to row their boats, or a squeaky sound of an oar, or the songs fishermen sing as they row their boats.
(Ref. Shiro Yamamoto “Ishikawa Jozan and Shisendo” p.180)


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09 – 韓愈-Han Yu & 柳宗元-Liu Zhongyuan

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